The research team of the Laboratory headed by Nikolay Kalyuzhnyy is carrying out the following investigations and developments in frames of the Megagrant for research “Development of new generation photovoltaics on the base of materials with the intermediate band”:


  • performance of calibration processes of growing GaAs/GaInAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs) for determining InAs material growth rate for different epitaxial conditions: mole flux of the III group atoms, relationship among atoms of the V and III groups, growth temperature, degree of substrate misorientation and other;
  • investigation of GaAs/GaInAs/GaAs photo-luminescent properties for determining optimum conditions of InAs material deposition in the MOCVD epitaxial process and also for determining the dependence of GaInAs QW photoluminescence parameters (intensity, halfwidth) on the epitaxial conditions;
  • investigation of InAs quantum dot (QD) deposition processes in the MOCVD epitaxy at different conditions;
  • investigation of the effect of QD deposition epitaxial regimes in the reactor on QD density and dimension;
  • investigation of a possibility to use layers compensating stresses in epitaxial double heterostructures with multiple QWs;
  • investigation of a possibility to store QD layers during MOCVD process;
  • investigation of luminescent properties of stored QDs (QD massifs);
  • investigation of two-photon absorption processes in the layers with QDs;
  • growth of solar cell GaAs structures with built-in QD massifs by the MOCVD technique;
  • elaboration of approaches to applying methods for fabricating PVCs of solar cell structures containing nanoheterostructures with quantum-dimensional effects;
  • optimization of the design of GaAs PVCs containing nanoheterostructures with quantum-dimensional effects;
  • development of the structure of MJ (GaInP/GaAs) solar cells having nano-heterostructures with quantum-dimensional effects and of epitaxial nano-heterostructure layers and their fabrication by the MOCVD technique;
  • elaboration of approaches to application of methods for fabricating MJ nanostructure PVCs;
  • analytical investigation of the MJ nano-heterostructure PVC spectral and I-V characteristics;
  • developing solutions on optimizing the design of MJ nano-heterostructure PVCs based on materials with an intermediate band.

The research team “MOCVD technology” is engaged in developing epitaxial technologies for growing in wide range of AIIIBV semiconductor materials by the MOCVD technique and also in developing and designing different PVC structures. The range of tasks being solved by the team includes the following main developments:

  • technology for growing semiconductor compounds and solid solutions in the arsenide system Al-Ga-In-As for creating different semiconductor devices;

  • technology for growing semiconductor compounds and solid solutions in the phosphide system Al-Ga-In-P for different applications;

  • technology for growing AIIIBV semiconductor compounds on alien substrates (Ge, Si);

  • approaches for investigating the growth process and for controlling PVC structure parameters by the optical in-situ methods including the reflectometry and anisotropic reflection spectroscopy methods;

  • epitaxial technologies for pseudo-amorphous growth on GaAs and Ge substrates and also investigation, calculation and development of single- and multi-junction PVC structures optimized for converting the direct and concentrated sunlight of the standard (AMO and AM1.5) and nonstandard spectral composition;

  • epitaxial technologies for growing lattice mismatched relaxed superlattices and their use in the technology for creating metamorphous and single- and multi-junction PVCs;

  • epitaxial technologies for growth and also investigation, calculation and development of structures of ~ 1µm laser radiation PVCs and receivers;

  • epitaxial technologies of growth and design of structures for autonomous power supply solar installations with solar spectrum splitting;

  • analytical procedures for calculating and approximating I-V and PV characteristics of different PVCs, investigation of fundamental intrinsic losses affecting their utilitarian characteristics;

  • controlled modes of thermal treating of different systems of metallic contacts of semiconductor devices manufactured on the base of developed epitaxial structures;

  • technologies for growing quantum-dimensional structures (quantum dots, quantum wells) in the In-Ga-As material system by the MOCVD technique and also technologies for compensating stresses in such structures;

  • technology and design of single- and multi-junction PVC structures based on materials with an intermediate band.


To create semiconductor device structures, the MOCVD technique is applied. The major instrument is the technological complex created on the basis of a R&D laboratory type MOCVD installation AIX200/4 (Fig.1a) with a horizontal quartz reactor (Fig.1b), in which gas-dynamics of laminar fluxes is realized.

The installation gas scheme (Fig.2) consists of the following sources. Sources of the III group elements - trimethylgallium, trimethylaluminum and trimethylindium; sources of the V group elements - arsine and phosphine, sources of p- and n-impurity atoms - diethylzinc and silane. Hydrogen is a gas-carrier. Such a configuration of the sources is allows growing wide range solid solutions used in heterostructures of different type PVCs.


For testing gown epitaxial layers and structures, a set of methods available in the Ioffe Institute is applied. For this reason, the MOCVD research team works in close cooperation with other teams and laboratories of the Institute. The following methods can be set off among the applied ones: X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atom-force- microscopy (AFM), time-of-flight secondary-ionic mass-spectrometry (SIMS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), a number of methods for measuring electrical and physical layer parameters (charge carrier mobility, free charge carrier concentration and other). The testing methods are directed to elucidating the interrelation between growth conditions and material structural-optical characteristics.

Besides, the AIX200/4 installation is equipped with an EpiRAS2000T- in-situ measuring system (LayTec, Germany) (Fig.4) with a feasibility to measure: normalized reflection – reflectometry, reflection anisotropy – ellipsometry or spectrometry of reflection anisotropy (RAS) and real substrate temperature – pyrometry. This allows additionally controlling and determining during growth: thickness of grown epitaxial layers and structures, composition of multi-component solid solutions, doping level and type, surface stoichiometry and hetero-interface quality.


Besides, the research team is integrated into the process of fabricating PVCs based on grown heterostructures, in particular, in elaborating controllable modes of thermal treatment of different systems of metallic contacts deposited on semiconductor devices. The main instrument for developing technology is the SRO-702 installation (ATV Technology, Germany) (Fig.3).


Optimization of the design of different type PVCs being developed is carried out on the basis of analyzing spectral and I-V characteristics. For this purpose, also original analytical procedures are being elaborated, which allow establishing interrelation of growth conditions and electrical-optical characteristics of single- and multi-junction PVCs and determining fundamental losses arising during conversion of light into electric power. In a general case, a multijunction PVC constitutes (in the simplest case) subcells (single-junction SCs) connected in series by, for example, tunneling diodes. The number of diodes connected in parallel in the PVC equivalent circuit on each portion of their chain will depend on the number of current flow mechanisms in each p-n junction and are described by the diode parameters of the number of up to 16 (pre-exponential factors J0 and non-ideality factors A). For this reason, analytical description of I-V characteristics and PV dependencies in such a system is a rather difficult problem, which requires application of either numerical approaches or piecewise linear analytical description of separate portions of a MJ PVC I-V characteristic (Fig.5a). With using the analytical methods, one can approximate quite accurately the experimental I-V characteristics and PV dependencies of created MJ PVCs (Fig.5b).


The following can be related to the important activity steps of the MOCVD research team:

  • In 2004 – 2005 the technological complex on the base of the AIX200/4 MOCVD R&D installation was started up. The Russian laws in area of safety and the requirements imposed by the AIXTRON firm on providing the installation with gases, water and exhaust ventilation were complied. During preparation of the installation for starting up, all systems were created, tested and introduced into operation.

  • In 2007 work on creating the first in Russia MJ PVCs (dual-junction GaInP/GaAs PVCs) being a result of a whole number of developments and investigations was completed. In that number elaborated were original approaches to application of in-situ optical methods for controlling growth modes and determining epitaxial parameters of layers at experimental optimization of MJ heterostructures. Successful creation of the dual-junction wide-band GaInP/GaAs PVC grown on a GaAs substrate has allowed transferring the developed structure on the Ge substrate with simultaneous formation in it the additional third p-n junction.

  • MOCVD technology for triple-junction PVCs elaborated in the team has passed adaptation for the industrial epitaxial AIX2600G3 reactor and has been introduced into production on the enterprise “Saturn” (Krasnodar), where output of PVCs for space application was started in 2011-2012.

  • During 2012-2013 structures for fabricating receivers-converters of laser radiation were calculated, developed and optimized resulted in fabricating devices with the 60% efficiency.

  • From 2013 till now, development of technology of quantum-dimensional structures (quantum dots) and search for approaches to apply them in PVC heterostructures is carried out.

1a.bmp1b.bmp Fig.1. Appearance AIX-200/4 (a) and the image of the horizontal reactor(AIXTRON) (b)
2.bmp Fig. 2. Gas system of AIX-200/4.
3.bmp Fig. 3. Exterior SRO-702 (ATV Technology)
4.png Fig. 4. System EpiRAS2000T (LayTec, Germany): organization and possibilities in-situ measurements.
5a.png5b.png Fig. 5. Analytical investigation of IV-curves and photovoltaic dependencies of the developed MJ SC: a) the principle of formation of segmental IV curves of a MJ SC and b) the result of the approximation of experimental dependences Voc(X), h(X) and Vη(X) [dots] by means of the single-exponential segmental model [many-coloured line: different colors of the segments on the rated dependence η(X) are correspond to that of the segments on the experimental dependence Voc(X)] in comparison with the approximation by means of the 3D network method [black line].

Elder Publications related to the current project:

"Characterization of the Manufacturing Processes to Grow Triple-Junction Solar Cells,"
International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014 (2014), Article ID 836284, 10 pages,
N. A. Kalyuzhnyy, V. V. Evstropov, V. M. Lantratov, S. A. Mintairov, M. A. Mintairov, A. S. Gudovskikh, A. Luque, and V. M. Andreev.

Chapter 18. Interfaces in III–V High Efficiency Solar Cells,
В книге (сборнике): High-Efficiency Solar Cells. Physics, Materials, and Devices Springer Series in Materials Science, v.190, pp: 545-570, 2014 656 стр.,
A. S. Gudovskikh, N. A. Kalyuzhnyy, S. A. Mintairov, V. M. Lantratov

“Subtractive method for obtaining the dark current-voltage characteristic and its types for the residual (nongenerating) part of a multi-junction solar cell”
Semiconductors, May 2014, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 653-658,
M. A. Mintairov, V. V. Evstropov, N. A. Kalyuzhnyy, S. A. Mintairov, M. Z. Shvarts, N. Kh. Timoshina, R. A. Salii, V. M. Lantratov

«Photoelectric determination of the series resistance of multijunction solar cells»
2012, Semiconductors, v.46 (8) pp. 1051-1058,
M. A. Mintairov; V. V. Evstropov; N. A. Kalyuzhnyy; S. A. Mintairov; N. Kh. Timoshina; Shvarts, N. Kh; V. M. Lantratov.

“Interface properties of GaInP/Ge hetero-structure sub-cells of multi-junction solar cells”
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 (2012) 495305 (6pp);
A S Gudovskikh , K S Zelentsov , N A Kalyuzhnyy , V V Evstropov , V M Lantratov and S A Mintairov

“Optical method of estimation of degree of atomic ordering within quaternary semiconductor alloys”
J. Appl. Phys. 112, 023102 (4pp) (2012)
T. Prutskij, G. Attolini, V. Lantratov, and N. Kalyuzhnyy

“Germanium Subcells for Multijunction GaInP/GaInAs/Ge Solar Cells”
Semiconductors, 2010, Vol. 44, No. 11, pp. 1520–1528
N.A. Kalyuzhnyy, A.S. Gudovskikh, V.V. Evstropov, V.M. Lantratov, S.A. Mintairov, N.Kh. Timoshina, M.Z. Shvarts, V.M. Andreev

«Current flow and efficiency of Ge p-n junctions in triple-junction GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge solar cells for space applications»
Proceedings of the 23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and 5th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September, 2010, pp.865-871
N.A. Kalyuzhnyy, A.S. Gudovskikh, V.V. Evstropov, V.M. Lantratov, S.A. Mintairov, N.Kh. Timoshina, M.Z. Shvarts, V.M. Andreev

«Improvement of radiation resistance of Multijunction GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge solar cells with application of Bragg reflectors»
Advances in Science and Technology Vol. 74 (2010) pp 225-230
V. M. Lantratov, V. M. Emelyanov, N. A Kalyuzhnyy, S. A. Mintairov, M. Z. Shvarts.

«AlGaAs/GaAs photovoltaic cells with InGaAs quantum dots»
Advances in Science and Technology Vol. 74 (2010) pp 231-236
V.M.Lantratov , S.A.Mintairov, S.A.Blokhin , N.A.Kalyuzhnyy, N.N.Ledentsov, M.V.Maximov, A.M.Nadtochiy, A.S.Pauysov, A.V.Sakharov, M.Z.Shvarts

Mintairov,SA; Andreev,VM; Emelyanov,VM; Kalyuzhnyy,NA; Timoshina,NK; Shvarts,MZ; Lantratov,VM, “Study of minority carrier diffusion lengths in photoactive layers of multijunction solar cells”, Semiconductors (2010,) v.44, 8 страницы: 1084-1089

“Band structure at heterojunction interfaces of GaInP solar cells”
Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 94 (2010) pp.1953–1958
A.S. Gudovskikh, J. P. Kleider, N.A. Kalyuzhnyy, V.M. Lantratov, S.A. Mintairov

«Investigation of photovoltaic devices crystallization in mocvd with in-situ monitoring»
Proceedings of the 24nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 21-25 September, 2009, pp.538-544
N.A. Kalyuzhnyy, S.A. Mintairov, M.A. Mintairov & V.M. Lantratov

“Lasing of whispering-gallery modes in asymmetric waveguide GaInP micro-disks with InP quantum dots”
Physics Letters A, Volume 373 (2009), Issue 12-13, p. 1185-1188,
Chu Y.; Mintairov A. M.; He Y.; Merz J. L.; Kalyuzhnyy N. A.; Lantratov V. M.; Mintairov S. A.

“AlGaAs/GaAs Photovoltaic Cells with an Array of InGaAs QDs”
Semiconductors (2009), Vol. 43, 4, pp. 514-518
S. A. Blokhin, A. V. Sakharov, A. M. Nadtochy, A. S. Pauysov, M. V. Maximov, N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, V. M. Lantratov, S. A. Mintairov, N. A. Kaluzhniy, and M. Z. Shvarts

“In-situ monitoring during mocvd growth of the triple-junction GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge solar cells”
Proceedings of the 23th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-5 September, 2008, pp.803-810
N.A. Kalyuzhnyy, V.M. Lantratov, S.A. Mintairov, M.A. Mintairov, M.Z. Shvarts, N.Kh. Timoshina and V.M. Andreev

“High-efficiency dual-junction GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells obtained by the method of MOCVD”
Semiconductors vol.41, (2007) #6, pp. 727-731
V. M. Lantratov, N. A. Kalyuzhnyĭ, S. A. Mintairov, N. Kh. Timoshina, M. Z. Shvarts and V. M. Andreev

Head of MOCVD Group 1: Dr. Nikolay Kalyuzhny
Phone: +7-812-297-21-73